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Anatomy and Physiology‏


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Anatomy is the study of the structure and relationship between body parts.
Physiology is the study of the function of body parts and the body as a whole. Some specializations within each of these sciences follow:

- Gross (macroscopic) anatomy is the study of body parts visible to the naked eye, such as the heart or bones.
- Histology is the study of tissues at the microscopic level.
- Cytology is the study of cells at the microscopic level.
- Neurophysiology is the study of how the nervous system functions.

Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts; it is mainly divided into zootomy and phytotomy. In some of its facets, anatomy is related to embryology and comparative anatomy, which itself is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy, is the examination of an animal’s body parts using unaided eyesight. Gross anatomy also includes the branch of superficial anatomy. Microscopic anatomy involves the use of optical instruments in the study of the tissues of various structures, known as histology and also in the study of cells.

The history of anatomy is characterized by a progressive understanding of the functions of the organs and structures of the human body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from the examination of animals by dissection of carcasses and cadavers (corpses) to 20th century medical imaging techniques including X-ray, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.

The human body refers to the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. Every part of the body is composed of various types of cell.

At maturity, the estimated average number of cells in the body is given as 37.2 trillion. This number is stated to be of partial data and to be used as a starting point for further calculations. The number given is arrived at by totalling the cell numbers of all the organs of the body and cell types. The composition of the human body is made up of a number of certain elements including carbon, calcium and phosphorus.

The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology. The human body can show anatomical non-pathological anomalies known as variations which need to be able to be recognised. Physiology focuses on the systems and their organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis.

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